Cross-posted with Conflict Journal
This is a weekly roundup of events from 17 March to 22 March 2014.
A draft report released this week by Christof Heyns, special rapporteur for the United Nations on Extrajudicial Executions, concluded that Mexico has experienced “numerous extrajudicial executions by the armed forces and the cartels, often without any accountability” as a result of the militarization of the drug war. The report warned that “soldiers who perform police duties have a hard time renouncing the military paradigm…[U]sually the way they have been trained makes them unfit to maintain public order. The main objective of a military force is to subdue the enemy by taking advantage of their superior strength, while the human rights approach only considers the use of force as the last resort.”
The watchdog group Amnesty International called on Mexico to address “ongoing patterns of disappearances, torture, arbitrary detentions as well as routine attacks on men and women defending human rights, journalists and migrants.” Among the 176 recommendations made by the United Nations Human Rights Council to the Mexican government is the cessation of “arraigo” detention, a form of pre-charge detention where a suspect can be held for up to 80 days without being brought before a judge.
The international press-freedom organization Article 19 claimed in a new report that public officials accounted for 60 percent of the 330 acts of aggression against journalists and media outlets documented in Mexico last year. Impunity for attacks on the media is rampant in Mexico. In the eight years since its inception, despite an annual budget of more than 30 million pesos ($8.2 million), the government’s “office of the special prosecutor for crimes against freedom of expression” has yet to secure a single conviction. Attacks against journalists in Mexico skyrocketed by 59% last year. The number of attacks rose from 207 in 2012 to 330 in 2013, nearly 90% of which were against individuals. Article 19 said 2013 was the most dangerous year for journalists in the country since 2007, estimating that the media face an act of aggression every 26.5 hours. The group also said public officials were behind the majority of the attacks.
Journalists investigating the apparent murder of one of their colleagues, Gregorio Jimenez, claim that they have had to take the investigation into their own hands because Mexican authorities have failed to act on evidence that Jiminez’s killing was related to his reporting, which had linked a powerful Veracruz businesswoman to an alleged kidnapping ring.
Unidentified suspects broke into the Mexico City home of Dario Ramirez, regional director of Article 19. The burglars stole documents and computers just two days before Article 19 presents its annual report on violence against journalists and the news media. Ramirez and his colleagues had received death threats and reported a number of other security incidents to Mexican authorities over the past year. Last week, Balbina Flores Martínez, a correspondent from international press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders, was threatened by someone claiming to be Omar Treviño, leader of the Zetas cartel.
The United States is seeking to extradite the former governor of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, Tomas Yarrington, for trial on charges of racketeering, money laundering, and conspiracy to import narcotics. According to the indictment, Yarrington used the bribe money to purchase a luxury condo in Texas and illegally used Mexican public funds to buy a private jet and other property. Fernando Alejandro Cano Martinez, the owner of Mexican construction firm, is listed as co-defendant on some of the charges. Yarrington is not currently in custody and the extradition request still has to be approved by a Mexican judge.
Former intelligence chief Monte Alejandro Rubido will replace Manuel Mondragon as the new chairman of Mexico’s National Security Commission, the country’s top anti-crime post. Rubido also served as head of the Cisen intelligence agency (a sort of Mexican NSA) and as deputy public safety secretary. Manuel Mondragon will “withdraw from the operational field and become part of strategic planning tasks” according to Government Secretary Miguel Angel Osorio Chong.
Mexican police arrested Manuel Plancarte Gaspar, nephew of Knights Templar kingpin Enrique Plancarte Solis. He is “suspected of killing several minors to extract their vital organs for sale.” While it is possible that some Mexican cartels have expanded their operations to include organ trafficking, the evidence is thin. Speculation about organ-trafficking by criminals has a long history, but it often turn out to be rumors propagated to sow anti-Americanism or fear of criminal groups.
According to the Attorney General’s office, Mexican authorities freed five kidnapping victims and arrested 10 suspects in three separate raids in the central state of Mexico.
Jose Manuel Mireles Valverde, a prominent leader of an autodefensa in Michoacan, strongly criticized the government for arresting Hipolito Mora, the leader of another autodefensa.
Spanish police claim that Mexican cartels, namely Sinaloa, Los Zetas and the Knights Templar, have established a presence in the European country, possibly attempting to challenge Colombian criminal operations that have historically dominated the country’s cocaine trade. One reason Mexican groups are moving in may be that cocaine consumption in the United States has been falling, while in Europe consumption is on the rise and the drug sells for a higher price. The increasing fragmentation of Colombian organizations could provide an opportunity for Mexican groups to move in, but both they and the Colombians will also face competition from European organizations looking to diversify and globalize. As InSight Crime concludes, ” the future of drug trafficking in Spain is more likely to involve decentralized and fluid transnational networks, within which Mexicans, Colombians and Europeans all have a role to play.”
Transnational criminal networks in Latin America make more than $3 million per week on the illegal cell phone trade, according to a report from Interpol.
Popular Science has an excellent long read on the fascinating story of Jose Luis Del Toro Estrada, the man who set up a massive secret radio network for the Zetas cartel.
Vice took a deeper look at the Knights Templar cartel’s involvement in the iron ore trade, which we reported last week. According to the article, “what the gang now earns from illegal mining and mineral smuggling makes its illegal drug profits look like chump change.”
Truthout highlighted the story of Yakiri Rubi Rubio, a 20-year-old Mexico City woman who was recently incarcerated for killing a man who she alleges kidnapped, raped and attempted to murder her.